Even though some may be rather strained, entropy of formation is favorable as the two ends of the chain are close together. Of course, movement of one carbon atom also causes slight movement of the remaining carbons. It is the same interaction that raises the energy of a staggered conformation of propane.
Quadrangular conformations are commonly encountered in even-membered large rings while quinquangular in odd-membered large rings.
More recent molecular dynamics structures indicate that, at higher temperatures, cyclohexadecane is a mixture of a large number of different conformations with  still being the most abundant, but the second most populated conformer is  [ 51 ].
Similar to the Newman formula, a sawhorse formula is useful if one wants to represent the configuration of the two neighboring atoms Fig.
In a staggered conformation, each of the carbon—hydrogen bonds is in between the two carbon—hydrogen bonds on the neighboring carbon atom.
Conformational analysis of cycloalkanes
Examples shown below illustrate this concept. In a more complex molecule, such as butane, one can identify different types of staggered and eclipsed conformations.
First, there is torsional strain, which is present in all the eclipsing conformations. As a result, on each side of the ring there are three hydrogen atoms cramped into a small space, which causes considerable steric transannular strain.
By analogy with the chair of cyclohexane, crown conformation of cyclooctane may appear to be of a low energy. Rather it has several conformations of approximately equal energies that are separated by low energy barriers.
This is an indication that it belongs to the category of large rings, which are characterized by low strain. Therefore, medium rings always exhibit strain. This conformation is called anticlinal. Such bonds and substituents are called intraannular bonds or substituents. As a result, all odd-membered rings must exhibit some torsional strain. Therefore, it is a large ring. Recently a  was proposed as the lowest energy conformation [ 49 ].
Cyclopentane undergoes conformational change from an envelope as shown in Fig. Cyclononane is the first case of a cycloalkane that does not have a lowest energy conformation. Both the twist-chair and the twist-boat are in a state of pseudorotation similar to that of cyclopentane [ 19 ].
Newman projection - Wikipedia
From X-ray diffraction studies, the carbon—carbon bond length was found to be 1. Conformational analysis of ethane One of the simplest organic compounds that exists in different conformations is ethane. Two alternate chair conformations of cyclohexane have the same energy.
In a chair conformation of cyclohexane twisting of the ring results in a bond angle of Chair flip of cyclohexane from Ref. Two fused six-membered carbon rings form decalin bicyclo[4. When needed a top-view perspective formula of the carbon skeleton, with hydrogen atoms omitted, was also included Fig. Newman projection is particularly convenient for observing dihedral angle as it is the angle formed by the C—X and C—Y bonds Fig. However, diamond lattice method still has importance.
In conclusion, butane, in addition to the torsional strain, may exhibit steric strain. ChemTexts September , 1: Therefore, the conformation of cyclooctane derived from a diamond lattice, called boat—boat, is unstable.
There is a specific type of transannular reactions that occur only in medium rings [ 41 ]. Cyclododecane is considered to be the first large ring cycloalkane. Conformations of cyclohexane It may be convenient to start analysis of cycloalkanes with cyclohexane rather than a chronological examination of the rings from the smallest to the largest. Among the numerous other conformations of cycloundecane the four represented in Fig. Finally, there is a specific type of transannular reactions reactions across the ring that only medium-sized rings undergo.